Monday, September 30, 2019
Music of any period reflects, in its own way, some of the same influences, tendencies, and generative impulses that are found in the other arts of that time (Donna, 2005). Thus the word Ã¢â¬Å"baroque,Ã¢â¬ usually used despairingly by eighteenth-century art critics to describe the art and architecture of the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, came to be applied also to the music of the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. After some years after the death of Johann Sebastian Bach, the ornate, formal and strict form of the High Baroque became Ã¢â¬Å"old-fashionÃ¢â¬ and lost its favor. Music slowly began to change form the style and forms of the High Baroque to a simpler yet tuneful form around 1750. The period following the Baroque is called the Classical period. The transition to the new styles and forms of Classical music was, like all transitions, rather complicated. The use of the baroque bass figure lost its taste and became obsolete. The preference of a simple structure rather than polyphonic constructions became dominant most especially in secular music. There was also a preference for one clear melodic line without melting with many others. Although baroque music differs greatly from classical music, they have striking similarities as evident in specific styles and forms. Though Classical composers tend to avoid the antiquated Baroque, one cannot fully abandon the styles and forms of the immediate predecessors. Instead, these styles were further developed to form a new meaning and use on the new musical structure. Forms like the opera and orchestra revolutionizedÃ¢â¬âthe former branching out from serious to variety, and the latter have a complete upheaval. Moreover, on the late Classical period, great composers such as Beethoven and Mozart studied the works of Baroque composers Bach and Handel. The later works of the classical composers were characterized of having innovative yet powerful polyphony inspired by BachÃ¢â¬â¢s masterpieces, and contrapuntal melodic lines imbued with the oratorios and suites of Handel. General characteristics of baroque music Baroque composers were united in a common goal: to express or represent a wide range of feelings vividly and vigorously. They sought musical means to express or arouse the affections.Ã Rather than they express their personal feelings, composers wanted to represent human emotions in a generic sense (Norton, 2010). The music is regarded for its distinct, formal compositional styles and forms. Style Various styles laid the foundation of baroque music. Expressive and expansive in melody yet deeply rooted in chordal harmonies, baroque music is typically highly rhythmical and quite easy to listen to. The comfortable regularity and lively rhythmic qualities of much of baroque music have made it appealing to many modern listeners. For more detailed listeners, one can interpret the music having poignant and stirring melodies, engaging conversation-like dialogues in sound, and rich harmonies and textures (Daniels & Wagner, 1975). Modality was replaced by tonality which gave a strong feeling of joy or lament. In 2008, Ferris explains that composers developed and theoreticians articulated the tonal system, in which every note of the major or minor scale bears a specific relationship to every other note, and all of the pitches are more or less similar to the tonic. Composers at that time recognized and utilized triad chords as an entity, which resulted to meaningful and consonant units of sound. The use of triads most especially the three principle chords (tonic, dominant, and subdominant) paved a stable and harmonic direction to tonal music (The Baroque Period). Thus, the tonal system of harmony was wholly adopted during the seventeenth century. In addition, the continuous use of the polyphonic texture during the Early Baroque was revolutionized to form a new textureÃ¢â¬âthe homophony. Imitative polyphony (more than one melodic line) was an extremely important factor in writing and playing music (The Baroque Era, Kamien, 2008). New forms of polyphonic music were developing because baroque composers felt that the art of counterpoint was essential to their artistry. On the other hand, the homophonic method (a musical technique that displays a vast separation amongst the melody line and the accompaniment) was gaining acceptance and use quite rapidly (The Baroque Era). The homophonic musical style played a significant role in opera and solo vocal music because it ocused the listenerÃ¢â¬â¢s concentration in the poetic melody of the singer. Most pieces in baroque music have the basso continuo which gave way to uniformity and unity. Basso continuo, or figured bass, is an accompaniment which consists of a bass part with numbers which specify the chords to be played above it. Musical works containing a continuo part helped to convey harmonic support of chords under the melodic line (The Baroque Era). Kamien (2008) states that basso continuo is usually played by at least two instruments: an organ or harpsichord and low melodic instrument like the cello or bassoon. Kamien (2008) also adds that Ã¢â¬Å"the organist of harpsichordist plays the bass part with the left hand which is also played by the cellist or bassoonist. With the right hand, the keyboard player improvises chords or melodic line by following the numbers. Because the numbers only indicate a basic chord, the performer has a wide field of freedom. Ã¢â¬ With continuity of rhythm and melody, baroque music also features continuity of dynamic level. This means that the volume stays the same for a period of time, and then there is a sudden shift to a different dynamic level. There are no gradual changes in dynamics (such as a crescendo or decrescendo). Terraced dynamics were used as the main keyboard instrument was the harpsichord, which could only be played in two modes, either forte (loud) or piano (soft), precluding the ability to accomplish crescendos or decrescendos (Kamien, 2008). Moreover, baroque composers fashion their work with different kinds of ornamentation. For Baroque musicians, ornamentation is not merely decoration that has no intrinsic value but rather the chief way of moving affections. One should, therefore, try in his ornamentation, as in all other aspects of his interpretation, to effectively communicate the sense of the music. In a lyrical movement, baroque performers intensify the expressiveness through the use of smooth melodic ornaments and appoggiaturas, in a brilliant movement, incorporate virtuosic ornaments, and in a movement that seems complete, add almost nothing besides essential cadential trills (www. musebaroque. fr). Eventually, both vocalists and instrumentalists recognized the principal ways of ornamenting a melodic line. First, brief formulas called ornamentsÃ¢â¬âsuch as trills, turns, appoggiaturas, and mordentsÃ¢â¬âwere added to certain notes to emphasize accents, cadences, and other significant points in the melody (Norton, 2010). Second, more extended embellishmentsÃ¢â¬âsuch as scale and arpeggio passages, and other types of flourishesÃ¢â¬âwere added to create a free and elaborate paraphrase of the written line (Norton, 2010). Forms In 1573, a group of musicians and intellectuals came together to discuss various subjects, especially the desire to revive Greek drama. This group of individuals is known as the Florentine Camerata, they wanted lines to be sung instead of simply being spoken (Styles of the Baroque Period). The group developed a new vocal style based on the music of the ancient Greek tragedy. This new style followed the rhythms and pitch fluctuations of speech. It was sung by a soloist with only a simple chordal accompaniment and was, thus, homophonic; the Camerata rejected polyphony because it would obscure the all-important text (Kamien, 2008). Together with the opera, the oratorio stands as a major development in baroque vocal music. Like opera, the oratorio is a large-scale composition for chorus, vocal soloists, and orchestra usually performed during the Lenten season in the oratory, from which its name was derived; it is usually set to a narrative text. Oratorio differs from opera in that it has no acting, scenery, or costumes. Most oratorios are based on biblical stories, but usually they are not intended for religious services (Tovey, 1956) The genre reached its heights in the late baroque period in the works of George Frederic Handel such as the Messiah with its well-known chorus of continuous praise of Hallelujah. Likewise, the baroque mass is an instrumentally accompanied vocal music tended to be a conservative musical form. As the seventeenth century progressed, masses began to incorporate concertato style and to have instrumental accompaniments. These developments led to the five masses of J. S. Bach, whose B Minor Mass is one of the towering monuments of Western music (Daniels & Wagner, 1975). One of the most significant aspects of the Baroque period was the emergence of independent instrumental music. Its development was not entirely what the Florentine composers had intended; Ã¢â¬Å"the new formsÃ¢â¬ , Kitson (1966) stated, Ã¢â¬Å"were by-products of reformÃ¢â¬ . The use of the modal system was broken down, and establishment of the major-minor tonality were considered. But, the old contrapuntal style was not abolished entirely. The known form of during the Baroque is the fugue. According to Kamien (2008), a fugue, written for a group of instruments or voices, or for a single instrument, is a polyphonic composition which is based on one theme called subject. Composers wrote fugues both as independent pieces and as sections within preludes or toccatas (Norton 2010). Throughout a fugue, different melodic lines, or Ã¢â¬Å"voicesÃ¢â¬ , imitate the subject. Fugue subjects usually have a clearly defined character and a lively rhythm. Music that had become associated with various social dances began to separate itself and became a type of independent instrumental music. The baroque suite is a set of dance-inspired movements, all in the same key but different in tempo, meter and character. It is performed by a solo instrument, a small group of instruments, or an orchestra (Wright, 2008). The movements of a suite are usually in AABB form. The section A, which starts from the tonic key then shifts to the dominant, is balanced by the section B, which starts from dominant then shifts to the tonic (Kamien, 2008, p. 103). Moreover, the orchestra during the baroque period was a performing group on instruments of the violin family. The baroque orchestra was consisted of ten to thirty or forty players. At its core were the basso continuo and upper strings. The use of woodwind, brass and percussion instruments are variable depending on the demand of the piece to be played. An aria (in English works sometimes called an Ã¢â¬Å"airÃ¢â¬ ) signifies a melody apart from the harmony, but especially a musical composition for single voice or instrument, with an accompaniment of other voices or instruments. The aria in BachÃ¢â¬â¢s suites is a short binary movement in a flowing rhythm in not very slow common or duple meter (Tovey, 1956). Influence of baroque music to classical music In the middle of the 18th century, Europe began to move toward a new style in architecture, literature, and the arts, generally known as Classicism, which sought to emulate the ideals of Classical antiquity and especially those of Classical Greece. Changes in musical perception on style and form are likely caused by a sum of economic, religious, sociological and political factors. It is interesting to examine the music created within the hazy boundaries between the periods. Style Norton (2010) believes that Ã¢â¬Å"at its best, Classical music reached a consistently high standard and possessed the qualities of a noble simplicity, balance, perfection of form, diversity within unity, seriousness of purpose, and use of ornamentation. Ã¢â¬ The transition to the new style was rather complicated. There was a general relaxation of formality, and for a while nothing much to take its place (Daniels & Wagner, 1975). The relaxation in the court life favored the Rococo (derived from the French word rocaille referring to the artificial rockwork), a reaction to the formalism, rigidity, and seriousness that had become characteristics of the Baroque, and a decorative style that was lighter, smaller in scale, and wittier than the Baroque (Daniels & Wagner, 1975, Kitson, 1966). The melody most typically consisted of a series of a series of short motives, repeated several times and cast in four or eight measure phrases. The melody is also generously supplied with a variety of trills, mordents, and the like. Classical music is basically homophonic. It seemed a proper alternative to the heavy polyphonic textures of the High Baroque. However, texture is treated as flexibly as rhythm. Pieces shift smoothly or suddenly from one texture to another. A work may begin homophonically with a melody and simple accompaniment but then change to a more complex polyphonic texture that features two simultaneous melodies or melodic fragments imitated among the various instruments. In addition, polyphony was piously maintained when it came to church music. It was used for intensification, contrast, and development in the late works of Haydn and Beethoven The most far-reaching event of Rococo music was the development of the simple two-part dance form of the Baroque, through a gradual enlargement and refinement, to the sonata-form of the Classical period. The end result was a form that remained in a dominant position in the field of instrumental music for almost two hundred years (Kitson, 1966). Indeed, it is a marvel of structural flexibility, capable of the greatest conceivable variety of expressive content. By the beginning of the eighteenth century, it was generally cast in a form consisting of three movements arranged in fast-slow-fast sequence. In sonatas and other pieces for violin, gradual increases and decreases of dynamics had long been employed; a theorist addressed the problem of crescendo and decrescendo receiving considerable attention. The Italian opera orchestra, too, had been familiar with swelling of tone. The solution is the borrowing a baroque style. Terraced dynamics had provided composers with one means of achieving contrast. Operas employing this device were widely performed throughout Europe. Form The practice of the baroque era was the standard against which new forms was measured, and there came to be a division between sacred works, which held more closely to the Baroque style from secular works, which were in the new style. A new orchestra developed during the classical period. It was a standard group of four sections: strings, woodwinds, brass, and percussion unlike the baroque which could vary from piece to piece. The number of musicians in a classical orchestra was greater than in a baroque group. Classical composers exploited timbres of each instruments. Unlike baroque composers, they did not treat instruments interchangeably. The Classical composers were the first to orchestrate for instruments like clarinet, trombone, and piccolo (Daniels, Wagner, et al, 1975). According to Kamien (2008), Ã¢â¬Å"the classical orchestra had developed into a flexible and colorful instrument to which composers could entrust their most powerful and dramatic musical conceptions. The mass continued to be an important form for Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven. During the Classical period, masses involved orchestra, soloists, and choir in a fully integrated work, using organizational principles derived from instrumental forms (The Classical Period). The majority of MozartÃ¢â¬â¢s masses were in Missa brevis type, the simultaneous setting of several lines of text, or the omission of certain sections of the mass, becau se the Archbishop Colloredo of Salzburg had no patience with long Masses. Effects of the influences of baroque music Long after the Baroque era ended, and their music was all but forgotten, both Handel and Bach were rediscovered in the Classical era. All great Classical composers like Mozart and Beethoven, after Bach and Handel, studied their works and learned from them in grasping and further developing BachÃ¢â¬â¢s and HandelÃ¢â¬â¢s science of baroque composition in such a way, that something entirely new emerged, pointing into the future. Proficient Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart The works of Bach, such as the B-minor Mass and the six motets, and Handel, for example, the Messiah had deeply influenced the works of Mozart in his last years of writing music. Mozart was thoroughly familiar with the music of Handel. During his childhood trip to England, he became well acquainted with HandelÃ¢â¬â¢s music and he never lost his taste for it. One can hear HandelÃ¢â¬â¢s influence in some of MozartÃ¢â¬â¢s early works, such as The Solemn Vespers, and in later works such as the Great Mass and the Requiem Mass in D minor. In fact, the opening page of MozartÃ¢â¬â¢s Requiem, beautiful as it is, is merely a reworking of the opening choral movement of HandelÃ¢â¬â¢s funeral music for Queen Caroline (Langlois, 2008). At the age of thirty, Mozart, visiting the St. Thomas Church in Leipzig, upon hearing a Bach motet for the first time, exclaimed Ã¢â¬Å"Now there is music from which a man can learn something. Ã¢â¬ Then, the choirmaster at Leipzig gave Mozart a copy of the score to all six of the Bach motets. They were a profound influence on his late style. In the last two years of his life, MozartÃ¢â¬â¢s counterpoint became even more exquisite and complex than before (Langlois, 2008). Moreover, Mozart was attracted to the main genres in which Bach excelledÃ¢â¬âkeyboard sonatas, keyboard concertos, symphonies and operas. BachÃ¢â¬â¢s singing-style themes, tasteful use of expressive motives, suspenseful harmonic ambiguities, and consistent thematic contrasts became permanent features of MozartÃ¢â¬â¢s writing (Portowitz). Ludwig van Beethoven Having Mozart as his model for his compositional styles, Beethoven had been familiar to the styles of the works of Bach and Handel. He continuously borrowed ideas, techniques and texture of the music of the baroque in his latter musical career. In his later years, wanting to compose certain pieces in a more contrapuntal style, Beethoven worked hard at mastering counterpoint. He studied the music of Bach, Handel, and even of Palestrina. In his late music, he developed a style of counterpoint that is more reminiscent of Handel than Bach. His fugues in his late period are very rhythmic in nature and quite unique in the history of music (Langlois, 2008). Beethoven showed his constant concern with the work of J. S. Bach. He constantly requested copies of newly published editions, for example, a copy of the B-minor Mass, from the well-known publishers in Leipzig and Zuurich. In BeethovenÃ¢â¬â¢s sketchbooks, interspersed among work on his own compositions, there are numerous entries of short or long passages from BachÃ¢â¬â¢s works, among them, the Chromatic Fantasy, and fugues from The Well-Tempered Clavier and The Art of the Fugue (Cramer, 2001). For Beethoven, the sense and aim of the study of his predecessors, was indeed his own further development, toward new ideas. Beethoven described this very clearly in a letter to the Archbishop Rudolph, in which he clearly names Bach and Handel as the only true geniuses, among his predecessors: Ã¢â¬Å"The aim of the world of art, as indeed in the whole creation, is freedom, progress; if we moderns have not the same firmness as our ancestors, yet the refinement of our manners has in many ways enlarged our sphere of action. Ã¢â¬Å"
Posted by Russ Burnett at 6:02 PM
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Recently, the subject of how to better pupil acquisition has been of considerable involvement in the administrative and academic community. There is besides considerable treatment about the importance of assignments, prep, quizzes, and trials as it relates to student acquisition ( Smith, Zsidisin, & A ; Adams 2005 ) . This concern for assignments, quizzes, trials, and how to guarantee pupils are maximising their authorship, is the foundation for this survey. For many parents, pedagogues, and teachers, frequent quizzes are an seemingly infallible prescription for bettering pupil public presentation ( Finn & A ; Achilles 2003 ) . As Hughes ( 2003 ) states that the consequence of proving on instruction and acquisition is known as a wash back consequence ; and it can be harmful or good. If a trial is regarded as of import and the bets are high, readying for it can rule all instruction and acquisition activities. Furthermore, he noted that wash back can be viewed as portion of something more general- the impact of appraisal. The impact in educational measuring is non limited to the consequence of appraisal on acquisition and instruction but extends to the manner in which assessment affects society as a whole. Celce-Murcia ( 2001 ) asserted that the ability to show thoughts in composing in a 2nd or foreign linguistic communication and to make with sensible coherency and truth is a major accomplishment. So this paper addresses the impact of constructed- response and selected- response quizzes as scheme for advancing pupil composing accomplishments. University teachers confine themselves largely to multiple- pick or selected- response trial as a concluding scrutiny for the interest of objectiveness ( Brown 2001 ) . That is, the function of frequent disposal of constructed- response quizzes in which the pupil must supply the correct reply, whether in a word, sentence, or try signifier and selected- response quizzes is someway neglected in universities. It might be that fixing selected- response and constructed- response quizzes is more demanding on teachers, need strict marking, and evaluation and administrating of these trials might every bit will be more hard, clip consuming, and debatable. But constructed- response quizzes in which pupils Ã¢â¬Ë responses consist of the production of linguistic communication sample may be helpful to EFL productive public presentation. As research workers such as Mirhassani & A ; Rahimipour ( 2003 ) claim that about all Persian teachers confine themselves to mid-term and concluding scrutinies and all classroom- based trials in our state ( Iran ) are based largely on distinct point points. Besides the consequences of surveies such as Gary ( 1972 ) and Arrasmith, Sheehan & A ; Applebaum ( 1984 ) reenforce the demand for farther research in the function of proving in measuring and advancing pupils larning and believing. So the chief consideration in this research will be whether the perennial disposal of quizzes affects the abilities of Persian EFL scholars Ã¢â¬Ë public presentation and particularly their formal organisation in general authorship accomplishments.Reappraisal of LiteratureInterest in how to better pupil acquisition is non new. It is a cosmopolitan concern among parents, pedagogues, teachers, and decision makers of educational establishments. It is by and large assumed that quizzes and trials are a req uirement for a successful completion of class plants. In pattern, co-worker and university teachers list regulations and guidelines related to quizzes and trials outlooks for pupils ( Felix 2005 ) . He considers quizzes and trials to be the pupil Ã¢â¬Ës duty and he/she is expected to take all quizzes, trials, and complete all assignments. Geist & A ; Soehren ( 1997 ) besides investigated the effects of frequent quizzes on dental pupil public presentation in a class on introductory radiology. Consequences indicated that the group with frequent quizzes performs significantly better on mid-term and concluding scrutinies than the control group. In relation to the surveies of frequent quizzing and public presentation, they conclude that frequent quizzes had a good and important influence on pupil public presentation and claim that the positive effects on public presentation increased as quizzes increased. Therefore, they further found that the positive affair for academic public presentation, and learning had an influential independent consequence on acquisition. Freilich ( 1989 ) examined the impacts of frequent testing on pupil public presentation in a general chemical science class. He found that quizzes were a determiner of pupil public presentation. These surveies clearly suggest there is added value to pupils who take quizzes. If pupils who take quizzes outperform those who experienced no quizzes, it seems sensible to reason that something is happening as a consequence of pupils who were exposed to test. Therefore, the research workers hypothesized that pupils with hebdomadal quizzes, non merely execute better on trials but besides learn more. Gary ( 1972 ) in relation to the consequence of frequent quizzes disposal on illative thought made a research with indiscriminately selected groups. The first group took eight hebdomadal quizzes necessitating pupils to remember declared facts while the 2nd group took hebdomadally quizzes necessitating pupils to pull illations about political involvements of several spiritual, economic, and geographic groups. Four trials were administered at the terminal of this intervention period. Consequence showed that frequent quizzes disposal affect significantly the scholars Ã¢â¬Ë public presentation. Study of Tuckman ( 2008 ) shows that frequent proving provides incentive motives. Frequently tried pupils outperform other pupils on scrutinies. He mentions that what it might be drove a pupil to acquire information into long- term memory are trials. Trials motivate pupils because they create the chance or necessity to accomplish success or avoid failure. In that manner, trials provide an inducement to larn and they are a beginning of incentive motive. The overall consequences clearly showed that the frequent trials enhanced motive for pupils who have typically performed ill to acquire content into long- term memory instead than simply aiming for them what to analyze. Weekly, in-class quizzes are based on some proving specializer such as Ruscio ( 2001 ) and Wilder, Flood & A ; Stomsnes ( 2001 ) have been associated with positive larning outcomes including increased pupil accomplishment attending, and assurance. Their survey shows that frequent quizzes reportedly maintain pupil survey attempt and advance class battle. The research literature, nevertheless, does non nem con back up the achievement benefits of quizzes. For illustration, Haberyan ( 2003 ) provided two subdivisions of general biological science pupils with hebdomadal in- category quizzes ; two tantamount subdivisions did non entree quizzes. Although pupils rated the quizzes favourably and believed that they were helpful in fixing for in- category scrutiny, there were no important accomplishment differences across subdivisions. Kluger & A ; Denisi ( 1997 ) conducted a meta- analysis on feedback intercessions, including quizzes, and concluded that such feedback does non ever heighten lea rner public presentation and may, in some instances, have damaging effects. Bryan ( 1998 ) conducted a research on factors lending to a decrease in race based subgroup differences on a constructed- response paper and pencil trial of accomplishment. Consequences showed that the constructed- response trial format may be a feasible option to the traditional multiple- pick format in predicators of occupation public presentation and at the same time cut down subgroup differences and subsequent inauspicious impact on trials of cognition, accomplishment, ability, and accomplishment. However, extra research is needed to further show the rightness of the constructed- response format as an option to traditional testing methods. Chowdhury, Al-share & A ; Miller ( 2005 ) express that in an epoch characterized by speed uping technological alteration, increasing economic uncertainness, low pupil accomplishment, and turning demand for answerability, educational establishments are challenged to fix pupils to work successfully in their chosen callings in the universe. They believe hebdomadal quizzes and their reappraisals, it is easier for an teacher to cognize earlier on how good the pupils understand each talk or construct and that is best larning when the teacher actively engages or involves pupils to larn by making the quizzes. In mensurating composing abilities Harris ( 1996 ) discussed that, examiner may be sensitive to grammatical forms appropriate to the written accomplishment and we know that many pupils may neglect to utilize such forms. Therefore, if our trial is to hold relevancy and cogency it should incorporate the sorts of formal grammatical points by which the pupils will later be judged in real- life state of affairs. Such sort of formal organisational forms that might include in our trials of composing accomplishments are subject- verb understanding, structural correspondence, comparing of adjectives, formation of adverbs, formation of irregular verbs, and so forth. Therefore, with respect to larning benefits of quizzes, research findings have been contradictory and therefore inconclusive. Brothen & A ; Wambach ( 2001 ) , describe a developmental psychological science class in which pupils had entree to computerise quizzes as tools to fix for proctored scrutinies. Their consequences indicated that passing more clip taking quizzes and taking them more times was related to hapless exam public presentation. They province that a possible account for this consequence is that pupils used the text edition to reply quiz points and mistakenly interpreted high quiz tonss as declarative mood of content command. Grabe & A ; Sigler ( 2001 ) , on the other manus, provided pupils with four online survey tools ; multiple- pick pattern trial points, short reply pattern trial points, talk notes, and text edition notes. Students often accessed multiple- pick pattern trial points ; no information was provided on the usage of short reply inquiries because really few pupils made usage of this resource. Students who made usage of the tools academically outperformed those who did non. Mirhassani and Rahimipour ( 2003 ) studied the relationship between quiz, frequence of disposal, and Persian EFL scholars Ã¢â¬Ë public presentation on summational accomplishment trials. Their survey showed that completion quizzes with 10 times frequence of disposal work better with the betterment of Persian EFL scholars Ã¢â¬Ë public presentation on summational accomplishment trials. They stated that the more pupils receive quizzes on the content of the book taught, the more they learn the stuffs taught in deepness.Methodology1. ParticipantsThe survey is conducted at Islamic Azad university of Dehloran. Sixty male and female pupils within the age scope of 18 to 20 took portion in this research. They were chosen among sophomore pupils based on non- random convenient trying method. They all major in package computing machine technology and were all native talkers of Persian. To guarantee whether the participants were homogenous, a linguistic communication proficiency trial ( Fowler & A ; Coe 1976 ) was administered as a pre- trial. Then, the pupils were indiscriminately divided into two groups, and each group included 30 pupils.2. InstrumentalityThree instruments were used in this survey. Their dependability coefficients were estimated based on KR- 21 expression. The first instrument was a general linguistic communication proficiency trial ( Fowler & A ; Coe 1976 ) in order to happen out lingual abilities of participants. Its Ã¢â¬Ë dependability coefficient was calculated by KR-21 expression as ( r= .79 ) . The 2nd 1 was 10 quizzes of constructed- response points as intervention in the survey. Last 1s, was a parallel validated summational accomplishment trial administered as a post- trial in order to look into out the effects of the research variable.3. ProcedureAt the beginning, a general linguistic communication proficiency trial ( Appendix A ) was given to 115 package computing machine technology pupils ( i.e. , 48 males and 67 females in Islamic Azad uni versity of Dehloran ) who were invited to take this trial as a pre- trial in this survey. This trial included 50 multiple-choice points which was adapted by the research worker in conformity with an reliable testing book written by Fowler and Coe ( 1976 ) . After roll uping informations, the responses of participants were analyzed. Then 60 pupils whose public presentation ranged from one standard divergence above and one below the mean were chosen for this survey. Over a 12 hebdomad period, a autumn semester in 2008, the first group received constructed- response quizzes, and the control group served as the control group to formalize this survey. Over all, experimental group received ten quizzes which lasted about 10-15 proceedingss, during 10 hebdomads. The first hebdomad was spent on the account of process and besides participants were asked to go to and take a linguistic communication proficiency trial ( Fowler & A ; Coe 1976 ) . From the 2nd hebdomad till the terminal of the term the participants took hebdomadal quizzes. Following each subdivision, pupils Ã¢â¬Ë quizzes were collected and graded by the research worker, and they were informed that the norm of their classs on these quizzes of general English book would number toward their concluding class every bit much as one of the major class scrutinies. At the terminal of the term, participants were given a parallel summational achievement trial in order to mensurate the grade of the li nguistic communication scholars Ã¢â¬Ë success in the formal organisation in general authorship accomplishments.Datas AnalysisAt the beginning, the pupils Ã¢â¬Ë tonss on pre- trial were obtained so descriptive statistics, mean and standard divergence of each group, were calculated. Consequences indicated that the agencies for these groups were similar. Table 1 is a study of pre- trial which was administered as the homogeneousness trial. The mean scores showed that the groups did non much differ in relation to their background cognition. The low criterion divergence signifies that the pupils Ã¢â¬Ë public presentations were really near to each other. In other words, their average tonss showed no important differences. Table 1. Descriptive statistics of pre- trialGroupsNitrogenMinimumMaximumMeanSouth dakotaControl 30 2 7 4.8333 1.5264 Constructed 30 2 7 4.5000 1.6552 Entire 60 2 7 4.6666 1.5908 At the terminal of the term, a parallel summational achievement trial was administered to the pupils. Table 2 shows the post- trial consequences descriptively. Table 2. Descriptive statistics of post- trialGroupsNitrogenMinimumMaximumMeanSouth dakotaControl 30 2 9 5.7333 2.1642 Constructed 30 10 17 13.1666 1.8000 Entire 60 6 13 9.4499 1.9821 Consequences showed that the pupils Ã¢â¬Ë public presentation in the concluding scrutinies were drastically different. Therefore, their average tonss were significantly different comparing to each other. Table 3 compares the public presentation of the groups by T-test. Table 3. T-test for the control and constructed groupsGroupsNitrogenMeandft-obs2-tails sog.Control 30 5.7333 58 14.4580 .05 Constructed 30 13.1666 This tabular array indicates that the difference is important at.05 alpha degrees. It can be claimed that frequent quizzes disposal, as Ballard and Johnson ( 2004 ) claim, better pupils Ã¢â¬Ë public presentation. On all steps of composing achievement pupils who received 10 times constructed- response quizzes outperformed pupils who did n't have this survey tool.DiscussionThe consequences of the survey made it clear that taking constructed- response quiz leads to better scholars Ã¢â¬Ë composing public presentation. This survey provides grounds that module will probably draw a bead on their pupils to take hebdomadal constructed- response quizzes. Therefore, the research worker can claim that frequent constructed- response quizzes better the formal organisation in general authorship accomplishments. The consequence of this survey confirmed our anticipation that pupils who took hebdomadally constructed- response quizzes would demo better keeping of grammatical forms than would pupils who were non engaged in the hebdomadal graded constructed- response quizzes. The consequences of this survey revealed that hebdomadal quizzes can hold a greater impact than antecedently found by Derouza & A ; Fleming ( 2003 ) and Haberyan ( 2003 ) . They studied scientific discipline pupils while the sample in this survey was drawn from package computing machine technology pupils. They found that pupils Ã¢â¬Ë public presentation was non strongly impacted while the research worker found significantly better public presentation. More surveies with different population majoring in other Fieldss of survey are needed to better our apprehension of how pupil Ã¢â¬Ës public presentation is impacted by hebdomadal quizzes, for case, classs in physical scientific disciplines. These findings clearly suggest that hebdomadal quizzing ( constructed- response ) is of import in larning English authorship accomplishments. In pre- intermediate degree, as Harris ( 1996 ) claims, composing exercisings should by and large be used merely to reenforce the acquisition of specific grammatical points or lexical points. Teachers Ã¢â¬Ë experiences showed that EFL scholars by and large have deficient cognition of English composing accomplishments in pre- intermediate degree. This has prompted us and other research workers like Baker ( 1989 ) and Werner ( 1993 ) to stress the importance of constructed- response quizzes alternatively of other survey tools and to place constructed- response quiz as the most effectual instrument to utilize because tapped on composing accomplishments of pupils. The betterment among the composing abilities of participants were striking where they took constructed- response quizzes.DecisionBased on the statistics done, it can be concluded that r epeated constructed- response quizzes receives the first precedence. Therefore, there was a important difference between the Hagiographas Ã¢â¬Ë public presentation of the group who received 10 times constructed- response quizzes and the group who did n't have any quizzes. The findings indicated that constructed- response quizzes can be used for advancing different accomplishments and constituent of linguistic communication acquisition ; hence, trial interior decorators should take constructed- response quizzes. The findings of the present survey gave empirical support to this position. This, as a rule of linguistic communication usage, is didactically cardinal in the instruction and testing of linguistic communication acquisition and needs to be taken in to account in the design of suited instructional stuffs and in the methodological analysis of schoolroom instruction.Pedagogical DeductionsBased on the research findings, this survey gives the undermentioned deductions and suggestions to EFL scholars and teachers that may be helpful in developing EFL linguistic communication acquisition, instruction, and proving. Teachers have got to supply pupils with appropriate feedback. Repeated disposal of quizzes may pave the manner for better acquisition, actua te the pupils to larn, supply adequate feedback for the pupils, and find the weak and strong points of pupils. All these can stop in long- term keeping of the stuffs taught and prevent the pupils from inquiring for their scrutiny. Though many of the surveies should be regarded as plants in advancement instead than concluding surveies, this survey does efficaciously foreground some of the complexnesss involved in current quiz research. By so we should be seeing new coevals of wash dorsum surveies which are progressively sophisticated and refined.
Posted by Russ Burnett at 6:11 PM
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Post-Lab Questions: 1. Restate your hypothesis. Was it confirmed or denied? How do you know? 1. What affects did each of the contaminants have on the water in the experiment? Which contaminant seemed to have the most potent effect on the water? 1. On a larger scale, what type of affects would these contaminants have on a townÃ¢â¬â¢s water source and the people who drank the water? 1. What type of human activity would cause contaminants like oil, acid and detergents to flow into the water supply? 1. What other items within your house do you believe could contaminate the water supply if you were to dump them into the ground? Try using your knowledge to earn extra money while at school. Tutoring high school students or other college students can be a great opportunity. It is important to promote yourself as much as possible to bring in business. You can find local tutors on the Internet. This paperwork of SCI 207 Week 2 Laboratory 1 shows the solutions to the following problems: The purpose of this lab is to learn more about how connected you are to the ecosystems and biosphere that you inhabit. You will learn how your everyday choices contribute to the human impacts on our environment you General Questions Ã¢â¬â General General Questions Lab 2 Ã¢â¬â Experiment 1: Effects of Groundwater Contamination Post-Lab Questions: 1. Restate your hypothesis. Was it confirmed or denied? How do yÃ¢â¬ ¦ To download this material Click this link Ã¢â¬â https://bitly.com/1xpzVt4 Try using your knowledge to earn extra money while at school. Tutoring high school students or other college students can be a great opportunity. It is important to promote yourself as much as possible to bring in business. You can find local tutors on the Internet. General Questions Ã¢â¬â General General Questions Lab 2 Ã¢â¬â Experiment 1: Effects of Groundwater Contamination Post-Lab Questions: 1. Restate your hypothesis. Was it confirmed or denied? How do you know? 1. What affects did each of the contaminants have on the water in the experiment? Which contaminant seemed to have the most potent effect on the water? 1. On a larger scale, what type of affects would these contaminants have on a townÃ¢â¬â¢s water source and the people who drank the water? 1. What type of human activity would cause contaminants like oil, acid and detergents to flow into the water supply? 1. What other items within your house do you believe could contaminate the water supply if you were to dump them into the ground? Ã¢â¬ ¦
Posted by Russ Burnett at 5:02 PM
Friday, September 27, 2019
The Professional Responsibility and Communication - Assignment Example The code of conduct of some of the most successful companies is very clear. This however should not be the benchmark of their operations. Moral virtues as well as professional conduct should be incorporated into the organizational behaviors of these individuals by the human resource departments. On the other hand, business ethics are also a big responsibility that all companies in all fields must observe. Technological and computing companies should not practice in such a manner that breaks the generally accepted business ethics. For example, they should be honest and not manipulate other companies because of superiority in the information aspects. In addition to that, it is good for such companies to practice corporate social responsibilities in the society they operate (Grodzinsky 1999, pp. 10). Such undertakings could be done by advancing bursaries, giving educational trips and sponsorships to students with passion in this industry but without the capacity to do so. DQ 2-Ã Commu nications The use of internet slang, short texts and icons has raised questions about their benefits and their effect on the mainstream languages. There has been a debate on whether the new style is in itself a new communication mechanism or otherwise. It is clear that despite the merits involved in this new style such as ease of use and convenience, written language is negatively affected and boundaries should be set. In some areas, some of the old versions or formal language is being totally replaced with new words, commonly among the youths. One of the most obvious merits in the use of short or simplified language especially while using the internet is that that it provides a convenient way of communication. Brown et al (2006) point out that this creates... This assignment highlights the responsibilities that these professionals have to the society, ways to be responsible and the business ethics that are involved in the course. The biggest responsibility that they ought to have is ensuring that they assess the social impact of their creation to the society according to ACM. This is because there are numerous instances where the savvy technological experts come up with very beneficial programmers. The use of the signal and new generation slang has no doubt affected a considerable number of users especially in the official world. There have been instances where a number of graduates use unofficial and grammatically incorrect languages in job applications. This is one effect that a repeated use of such language has over the society. The researcher shows the direct effects that technology has brought especially in the communication sector. He categorically states that the mobile phone text messaging creates a very comfortable and easy way o f communicating which risks many minds to be lazy and using shortcuts. In conclusion, the discussion has looked at the professionalism of the computing world and the responsibilities that are expected from the involved experts. In the world today, the way people carry out their professions has changed to include ethics and professional responsibility. Additionally, there has been an insight that communication helps to alleviate the mode of living. However, if not taken with caution it may end up spoiling or negatively impacting the society.
Posted by Russ Burnett at 3:52 PM
Thursday, September 26, 2019
How does increased wait time affect the quantity of correct responses to question from elementary ELL students - Essay Example Despite the comprehensive understanding of the role of thinking in reading process, there exists very few researches that seek to clarify the time required by a student in answering classroomÃ¢â¬â¢ questions(Brenda, 1999). However, the existing researches have classified the time required before responding to a question into eight categories, post-teacher question time, within-studentÃ¢â¬â¢s response pause-time, post-student response wait-time, student pause-time, teacher pause-time, within-teacher presentation pause-time, student task-completion work-time as well as impact pause-time (Stahl, 1994). Several researches has as well confirmed that, adequate wait-time give students enough time to process the received information, use the available techniques and strategies to come up with an accurate answer and to encode the received information (Stahl, 1994). Adequate wait-time also advances cognitive learning skills compared to short wait-time. In addition, researches have as well found out that, student who pursue second language requires adequate amount of time in order to translate the new information into their native language (Stahl, 1994). Second language students have limited meta-cognitive processes of understanding new information compared to native speakers. To understand teachers or instructors instruction, second language students ought to be given adequate time to understand and respond to classrooms questions (Rowe, 1986). Information processing models of learning have as well indicated that, providing adequate time for learners to understand and formulate teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ questions prior to giving response increase the quality of the answer. This is especially the cases on questions that require a lot of facts and accuracy (Donna and John, 2006). In reference to the model, in answering a question, a learner requires sufficient time to locate the relevant information in long-term memory, retrieve the information into work memory and to evaluate whether the retrieved information can adequately answer the posed question (Rowe, 1986). In answering questions that requires applications of external information, a learner is supposed to apply the retrieved facts into the current situation and identify the accuracy of the facts before responding to the question (Orpha, 1994). If the questions require additional information, the learner is therefore expected to have more time to retrieved additional information from long-term memory and apply the retrieved information to the new situation (Alejandro and Celeste, 2003). As a result, offering additional information to a student before responding to the posed question gives a learner adequate time to search for the needed information, retrieve the information, apply the retrieved information, evaluate the information as if need be to seek for additional information (Alejandro and Celeste, 2003). In addition, the provision of adequate time to master a question helps a student to have b etter mastery of the content. Moreover, completing the process of retrieving information assists a student to identify accurate information to the posed question. Adequate time to recover the store information also plays an incredibly crucial role in improving
Posted by Russ Burnett at 7:47 PM
Comparison of Two Types of Operational Budgets - Assignment Example Alternatively, variable costs can be stated as cost of every unit activity measure. Actual activity measures are then fed into the model after the accounting period. After this, the flexible budget is updated automatically by the variable costs. The resultant flexible budget is ten entered into the accounting system in order for comparisons to be made. These comparisons produce variances more relevant than those produced under a static budget. These variances are especially because the expenses involved are based on an activity. This accounts for the small variances registered in this comparison than those registered under static budget. Flexible budget can range across levels of sophistication. In basic flexible budget, alterations are recorded where there is a direct variation between certain expenses and revenues (Hope & Fraser, 2003). Under intermediate flexible budget, there are certain expenditures that will change with other activity measures and not with revenue. Advanced flexible budget deals with expenditures that vary only at given ranges of other activities and revenue. Master budget is a planning document that brings together all the budgets. It matches the beginning of a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s fiscal year and be organized in quarters or months. The operating and financial budgets are the two parts of a master budget. It helps in judging the performance of company and its centers. The management makes modifies the master budget until it allocates funds to all set goals. Direct labor, direct materials, sales, manufacturing overhead and production are some of the budgets that show on a master budget (Finkler & McHugh, 2008). After preparation, the master budget is fed into the accounting system and financial reports are generated. Comparisons are then drawn between actual results and the budgeted amounts. There are spreadsheets that can help produce master budgets but they can have errors. A master budget appears
Posted by Russ Burnett at 4:03 AM
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Introduction to business - Essay Example In addition, Michael Dell had personal interests in the company as it symbolized the works of his entire life and his legacy. Therefore, he had the required motivation to drive the company into profitability and see the work of his hands hold up for future generations to see. In addition, Michael Dell had fresh new ideas that could salvage the corporation from losing any further than it had, marketing strategies. His idea of collaborating with retailers in order to bring about more revenue to the company; this was by targeting the retail market in order to tap its enormous purchasing power. Changing the marketing and operations in a company require a new organizational culture in order to address several issues that arise from human behavior about the work place. These are in the form of motivation, language, norms, visions, values, systems and symbols that the organization follows. Marketing interfere significantly with these factors in that every strategy used kin marketing directly affects all members of staff because; norms change according to the strategy applied in marketing. The procedures used in implementation change according to the strategy, moreover, there is need to have a new culture with changes in the operation that a company conducts. This is because language used in the changes thus there is need to come up with a new working language that will handle the changes that occur. In addition, motivation in staff varies depending on the goals and visions of the company. This, therefore, makes room for a new organizational culture that handles all these even tualities. Marketing strategies, also, affect the way in which staff members interact among themselves and with clients of a company. Therefore, changes in marketing must account for all aspects in staff behavior. Information gained from retail partners will
Posted by Russ Burnett at 5:57 AM
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Research paper - Case Study Example For each of these diseases a physical examination will have to be done to achieve a proper diagnosis of each. A 16-year-old female presented with her mother at the doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s office. The patient states that the following subjective symptoms that are bothering her are that she feels extremely tired and fatigued. She has a lack of appetite. She appears to have Ã¢â¬Ëtomato red cheeksÃ¢â¬â¢ as if someone slapped her. She also states that she has had a fever for the past 24 hours. This is according to the mother for she sais that she gave her daughter Tylenol for the fever it was effective for a short while, but fever comes back. They also share that they just moved to California three months ago. The patient also states that she began working for a preschool as a teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s helper and that no child is present with any rashes. Patient also states that she has had her period (menses) one week ago. Her mother asks a question about her own health for she happens to be five months pregnant. The three differential diagnoses that this patient could be suffering from are Mononucleosis, Fifth Disease, and KawasakiÃ¢â¬â¢s Disease. This 16 year old female is exhibiting prodromal symptoms (symptoms that occur before the actual onset of the disease) of these three diseases. Diagnosis- Characterized by malaise, anorexia, chills and fever which is a prodromal symptom, pharyngitis and lymphadenopathy. Occasionally the disorder comes on abruptly with high fever. Seek help when severe pharyngitis lasts for five to seven days. Only 90% of patients suffer from lymphadenopathy even though the patient shows no signs at this moment. Rashes that appear look like Rubella when it may appear. Screening- Most persons during adolescence and young adulthood and in the upper socioeconomic classes in developed countries. Relatively asymptomatic when it occurs during childhood and confers complete immunity to
Posted by Russ Burnett at 4:49 AM
Monday, September 23, 2019
Tourism industry - Essay Example It has also helped in better cultural understanding through the interchange of ideas between host and guest communities. Though mass tourism provides different economic and social benefits, it is also associated with different negative impacts on social, economic as well as environment aspects of a community. Tourism can be sustainable only if it is managed carefully (United Nations Environment Programme, 2014; Mirbabayev, n.d.). Taking into concern the various impacts of the mass tourism on environment and economy, there has been an idea of imposing taxes on mass tourism in additional to the already high taxes on various tourism requirements such as hotels, flight charges and other rentals. This idea may help in eliminating certain tourism related issues but it fails to realise the impact that it can cause to the tourism industry. In fact, tourism taxes in some countries have become an easy and a trendy fashion for governments to collect revenue from visitors in order to cover the government expenses. The tourism industry is taxed by methods of direct taxation to the tourists or units associated or involved in tourism (Gooroochurn & Sinclair, 2003; Rinaldi, n.d.). Such hikes in taxes not only force the tourists to go to other cheaper destinations but also have a serious effect on the local residents. For example, the Hawaiian Tourism industry experienced fall in tourism in 2007 owing to effects of various direct along with indirect tax hikes, which affected more than 75% of jobs in the state. The tourist shifted elsewhere taking their spending with them and the taxpayers were left with budget deficit owing to that the state economy was also weakened (Nothdurft, 2009). Similar example can be taken from fact that Caribbean Tourism was impacted negatively due the government aviation taxes in tourism (Caribbean journal, 2013) Tourism taxes are also being levied in the local level, which is creating more tax
Posted by Russ Burnett at 3:40 AM
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Internal QMS auditor training assessment booklet Essay Case Study 1: Pre-Audit Preparation Instructions: 1. Each participant should individually study the background of the company including the background of organisation, organisation chart and process flow chart provided: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Managing Customer Service: Front Office VVG-FO-B-7.5.1 (D) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Managing Customer Service: Food and Beverage VVG-FB-B-7.5.1 (D) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Managing Property: Engineering VVG-EN-B-7.5.1 (D) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Delivery Service: Housekeeping VVG-HK-B-7.5.1 (D) 2. Prepare an audit plan for an internal audit of one business process but not your own work (use template of audit plan provided in Case Study 1: Output 1 or current Internal Audit Program). State any assumptions that you have made in preparing the audit plan. The plan should: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Define the scope of the audit; Ã¢â¬ ¢ What to audit (documents, records, activities); Ã¢â¬ ¢ Who to select for interview and reason for selection; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Where and when to audit (locations, audit trails, sequences, estimated time required); Ã¢â¬ ¢ Methods for gathering objective evidence (interview, observation, document / record review). 3. Prepare an audit checklist with suitable questions to guide you in verifying the conformance, implementation and effectiveness of the QMS at the Sales and Marketing Department (use template of audit checklist in Case Study 1: Output 2 or current Internal Audit Program) Case Study 1: Output 1Name of Participant: .. ISO 9001 Internal Audit Plan Audit Specifications | | | |Audit Objectives | | |Audit Scope | | |Audit Client | | |Audit Team | | |Audit Dates | | |Audit Locations | | |Audit Criteria | | Date: ..Day: Assessment Program / Audit Plan |Time |Area |Clause |Auditor |Auditee | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Lunch | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Date: ..Day: Assessment Program / Audit Plan |Time |Area |Clause |Auditor |Auditee | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Lunch | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Case Study 1: Output 2Name of Participant: .. Internal Audit Checklist Department: Date of Audit: . Title of Procedure / Documents: Auditor: .. Auditee: . Page(s): of . |No |Step |Internal Audit|ISO Clause | | | |Checklist | | | | |Questions | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Audit Conclusion | | Case Study 2: Output 2Name of Participant: .. For one selected non-conformity / observation: |Internal Audit Corrective and Preventive Action Report No.:.. | |To: From: | |(Auditee) (Auditor) | |Audit Criteria: ISO 9001 Clause No.: | |and / or Procedure: | |Description of Non-conformity / Observation (Part 1 by Auditor): | | | | | |AuditorÃ¢â¬â¢s Name / Signature: Date: | |AuditeeÃ¢â¬â¢s Name / Signature: Date: | |(to be completed: 1 moth) | |(a) Root Cause(s) (Part 2 by Auditee): | | | | | |2. (b) Correction and Corrective / Preventive Action Plans to be taken | |Correction Plans: | | | | | |Corrective / Preventive Action Plans: | | | | | |AuditeeÃ¢â¬â¢s Name / Signature: Date: | |Verification of Corrective / Preventive Action: | | | | | |AuditorÃ¢â¬â¢s Name / Signature: Date: |
Posted by Russ Burnett at 2:31 AM
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Freedom Of Speech And Expression Philosophy Essay Critically analyze the following statement, which is often attributed to Voltaire I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it. All humans live in societies. In these societies rules of behavior are very important in order for people to treat their fellow human beings equally. These rules of behavior are commonly called human rights. Human Rights are universal and thus apply to all people on the basis of being human regardless sex, race, nationality, sexual orientation, political opinion or any other status. As Michael Douglas said Human Rights for everyone is the necessary foundation upon which all of us may build a world where everybody may live in peace and serenity and plenty.Ã In this course of paper we are going to examine the right to freedom of expression which has seized particular importance. This will be achieved by discussing a famous quotation which is usually attributed to Voltaire; I may disapprove of what you say but I will fight to death for your right to say it. Through this quotation we are going to see and understand the importance of this valuable right in our societies. During our discussion we should always bear in mind that none of the fundamental freedoms, including freedom of expression, is absolute. Main Body Origin of the quotation To start with, although there are more ancient precedents, freedom of expression as it is known today has its basis from the period of Enlightenment. One of the philosophers and political thinkers of that period was Voltaire, a French thinker, who believed strongly in freedom of expression and was a significant contributor to Enlightenment movement. The well known phrase I may disapprove of what you say but I will fight to death for your right to say it is widely attributed to him but it cannot be found in his writings. This can be easily understood since the phrase was firstly appeared in The friends of Voltaire written by Evelyn Beatrice Hall. Hall claimed that this phrase was an epitome of Voltaires attitude and that she has paraphrased Voltaires words; Think for yourselves and let others enjoy the privilege to do so too, in his essay of Tolerance. International standards As indicated in the introduction, the importance of the free expression as a basic and valuable characteristic of democratic society cannot be underestimated. As a result the development of international human rights system which serves as a framework for freedom of expression is of particular interest. All major human rights treaties protect this right: article 10 of the European Convention of Human Rights, article 19 of international covenant on civil and political rights, article 13 of the American Convention on Human Rights and article 9 of the African Charter on Human and People Rights. Freedom of Expression and its importance As we have seen I am using freedom of expression instead of freedom of speech since I view the latter as an umbrella that incorporates the former. Freedom of expression is wider since it includes any form of communication that is capable of conveying meaning. For example behinds including words; it is used for pictures, images, sounds, non-verbal communication etc. As Michael Jackson said The meaning of life is contained in every single expression of life. In practice, freedom of expression serves many functions which are related to each other. First of all, a classic defense of the right to freedom of expression is the one that John Stuart Mill argued On Liberty in 1859. He stated that nobody has the monopoly of truthÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦.Anyone has the right to express their views and opinions because truth is not a monopoly term. If people disagree with minoritys opinion should use counter arguments and not suppression. As it was stated in Bose Corporation v Consumers UnionÃ Ã freedom to speak ones mind is not only of individual liberty but also essential to the common quest for truth and the vitality of society as a whole. Generally in Europeans court of human rights case law, it has been made clear that freedom of expression is guaranteed not only with respect to popular and favorably receivable ideas or information, but also to those that offend shock or disturb. Furthermore, its vital role in ensuring democracy is undisputable and it has been recognized by scholars and judgments of international and national courts. For example In Handyside v UKÃ Ã it was stated that freedom of expression in one of the essential foundations of a democratic society and one of the basic conditions for its progress and for the development of every man and woman. As Thomas Carlyle said Every human being has the right to hear what other human beings have spoken to him. It is one of the Rights of Men; a very cruel injustice if you deny it to a man. As it was also stated in Castells v SpainÃ Ã it enables everyone to participate in political which is at the core of the concept of democratic society. Philosopher Alexander Meiklejohn argues that the concept of democracy is that of self government by the people. For such a system to work an informed electorate and free flow of information and ideas is necessary. If citizens are able to exercise their righ ts effectively, their wishes would be taken into account and also tyranny, corruption and ineptitude would be restrained. This can only be achieved through open discussion, exchange of opinions in which citizens can have the opportunity to consider and debate alternative ideas. Freedom of expression is important at all levels in society but most important for government. A government which does not know how and what people feel and think is in dangerous position. When criticisms of the government are freely voiced, government has the opportunity to respond to those comments and explain its actions. Thirdly, freedom of expression is an important aspect of an individuals self fulfillment which is a desirable objective. As we all know expression is tied up with humanity since what distinguishes us from animals is the ability that we have to communicate and express our feelings. So we can understand that all people must have the opportunity to express their views; wrong or right, in order to explore and develop their own personal identity. Otherwise we would not be able to be developed both morally and intellectually as individuals and this look like a restriction of our humanity. Summarizing all these, freedom of expression has two dimensions. It has the individual dimension of not to be prevented from manifesting ones own thinking, and the collective right to receive any information and to hear expression of anothers thought.Ã Ã As we can understand protection of free expression is meaningless if it does not also extend to ideas and opinions that are generally not acceptable. When citizens are unable to talk to each other, they will increasingly talk against each other, and thus will increasingly misunderstand and mistrust each other.Ã Ã As we have seen in many cases of the European court of Human Rights it was said that defense of offensive opinions is one of the demands of pluralism, tolerance and broadmindness without which we can not talk about democratic society. Tolerance is integral and a basic value in our societies. Protecting unpopular opinions is itself an act of tolerance. Also John Stuart Mill supported the idea that we must active ly work against the tyranny of majority opinion. The fact that majority holds an opinion does not necessarily makes it to be true. For example, regarding decision-making we have to consider range of ideas, and a decision is likely to be better if it does not underestimate opinions, interests and needs of minority. Liberals like Voltaire encourage open verbal and written debate, free flow of arguments, free press, art etc. Generally they support that only through open discourse we can learn from others and also encourage others to learn from us. If we not value toleration for unpopular opinions, then we reject our right to live in a tolerant society. As Nigel Warburton said commitment to free speech involves protecting the speech that you dont want to hear as well as the speech that you do. This means that is not enough to express what you want but also not prevent others from doing so. Freedom of Expression and its limits (briefly) However its importance, right of expression may be subjected to some restrictions for respect of rights of other or other values. As Judge Oliver Wendell Holmes stated free speech does not allow one to shout Fire in a crowded theatre. By this he meant that good ideas are those which survive the criticisms and are allowed for further development, in contrast with bad ideas which do not survive criticisms at all. Limitations for freedom of expression may follow the harm or the offence principle. John Stuart Mill introduced what is known as harm principle, stating that freedom of expression can be restricted in order to prevent harm to others. In contrast Joel Feinberg introduced offence principle, arguing that Mills harm principle does not provide sufficient protection against the wrongful behaviors of others. He suggested that some factors must be taken into account when applying his principle. Nowadays although the wording in article 10 paragraph 2 of the European Convention of Human Rights and article 19 paragraph 3 of international covenant on civil and political rights differs, the case law has proved that limitations to freedom of expression are relatively the same in both articles. Although both articles are important we are going just to see briefly the European test. Restrictions can only be applied if they meet the three-part test made by ECtHRÃ Ã . Thus they must be prescribed by law, serve a specific legitimate aim and also be necessary in a democratic society. When assessing the restrictions we must always bear in mind the test of proportionality and also each countrys margin of appreciation. Conclusion To sum up all the above, we come to the conclusion that freedom of expression is important for the growth of our species. Our world is increasingly integrated, thus we have to be mature enough to understand that such integration comes with things that we may not want to see and with ideas, opinions and views that we may not like and may not want to hear. Based on the fact that freedom of expression is the most important ability of human beings, every person should have the right to express itself. As the Desmond Tutu maintained the more we recognize people as people, the more we are recognized as people ourselves; and vice versa: the more we degrade other people, the more we debase ourselves further and further away from being fully human. Generally as what Noam Chomsky has stated in the twentieth century If you believe in freedom of speech, you believe in freedom of speech for views you dont like. Stalin and Hitler, for example, were dictators in favor of speech for views they liked only. If youre in favor of freedom of speech, that means youre in favor of freedom of speech precisely for views you despise.Ã Ã However we must know that although freedom of expression is a precious gift for people it must not exceeds its limits, thus why restrictions related to this right can be easily understood. After all the above analysis I would like to close, with the main theme of this paper I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.
Posted by Russ Burnett at 1:19 AM
Friday, September 20, 2019
Sealed Air Company 2. SUMMARY The protective packaging market is becoming more competitive. Sealed Air company is encountering a growing number of competitors in its field. Similar or alternative systems are now proposed against those of Sealed Air. These new systems are often cheaper but as argued by Sealed Air less effective concerning the protection they offer and therefore less cost-effective. A new company (GAFCEL) has entered the market with an uncoated product and is having success on the New York, California and Ohio market. Sealed Air will face further erosion of its US market share. Based on the analysis of the AirCapÃ ® product as well as on the analysis of the market, we will answer questions regarding Sealed Air's reaction to its new competitor GAFCELL and the opportunity to introduce a new uncoated product in the market. We will make marketing recommendations on how to introduce this new product and in which geographical market to launch it in order to maintain Sealed Air as a leader of the protective packaging market. 3. QUESTIONS 3.1. What should Sealed Air be trying to accomplish in any decision it makes in response to the GAFCEL threat? Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã It should be trying to gain back the market share that was taken by GAFCEL and it should ensure it does not loose anymore market share. Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã It should ensure it keeps its reputation of a company built on Ã¢â¬Ëtechnical accomplishmentsÃ¢â¬â¢ and must ensure its image does not suffer from the possible introduction of this new uncoated product. Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã It should not Ã¢â¬ËcannibaliseÃ¢â¬â¢ itself and therefore it should ensure the products are segmented correctly. 3.2 What has been happening in the market and how is Sealed Air doing? In order to answer this double question, we have completed and focused our analysis mainly on the AirCap product manufactured by Sealed Air. 3.2.1 Strengths and Weaknesses MIXÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã STRENGTHSÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã WEAKNESSES PRODUCTÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã -Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã quality & reliability -Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã benefit to customers -Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã barrier coating with saran -Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 8 different grades to fit all applications -Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã patent protection -Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã registered trade markÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã -Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã only coated products offered in the USA PRICEÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã -Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 10[%] margin to distributors for direct sales -Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã quantity discountÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã -Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã higher than competitors, up to 50[%] (England) COMMUNICATIONÃ Ã Ã ... ...nd this will be effective only with specific selling training sessions with real life scenarios. 5. Conclusion Sealed Air Group will now be able to offer a complete range of products : uncoated and coated. Sealed Air Group will maintain its reputation, its image of quality regarding the coated products. Sealed Air Group with its accurate and well-thought strategy will avoid the cannibalism effect as much as possible. Sealed Air Group will regain market share and sustain its leadership across the US, Europe and in the developing countries (expansion programme). Sealed Air Group will be able to propose and sell the appropriate product to the appropriate customer through the appropriate distributor. Sealed Air Group will set up tailored-made programmes for each country according to the buying mentalities, the purchasing habits and specificities of each country . Sealed Air Group is fully aware that key success factor of its above strategy is the distributor network : Sealed Air Group will build up loyalty with the key distributors through exclusivity, special incentives, special events and higher commissions, in the US and even more across Europe.
Posted by Russ Burnett at 1:20 AM
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Lawrence Ferlinghetti's Politics I hope I won't seem too politically incorrect for saying this but after immersing myself in the writings of the guilt-obsessed asexual Jack Kerouac, the ridiculously horny Allen Ginsberg and the just plain sordid William S. Boroughs... it's nice to read a few poems by a guy who can get excited about a little candy store under the El or a pretty woman letting a stocking drop to the floor (Ã¢â¬Å"Literary KicksÃ¢â¬ ). For casual reading, Lawrence Ferlinghetti's poetry is cheerful and humorous. At best it is a welcome break for the mainstream of the Ã¢â¬Å"beat generation.Ã¢â¬ Inside his poetry, deep rooted criticisms of the United States exist. Ferlinghetti has had an anti-government attitude since the 1950's. His beliefs strengthened when he was put on trial for publishing a highly controversial collection of poems written by Allen Ginsberg. Lawrence Ferlinghetti has chosen to express his political views through his poetry. Additionally, Ferlinghetti became more vocal with the use of protests and further publication of controversial and/or anti-government materials through his publishing house, New Directions. By using poetry, Ferlinghetti was able to reach a vast audience including those whom he was criticizing. Through his poetry, Lawrence Ferlinghetti blatantly and subtly criticized the American democratic system and politicians. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In 1957, Ferlinghetti received his first national attention. Ferlinghetti was arrested and brought to trial as the publisher of a collection of obscene poetry, Howl and Other Poems by Allen Ginsberg (Alspaugh 1148). Eventually he was cleared of the charges of Ã¢â¬Å"publishing and sale of obscene writings.Ã¢â¬ Since his involvement in the obscenity trial, Ferlinghetti became quite cynical of the government. After the trial ended, Lawrence Ferlinghetti canceled all government grants coming to him and to any writers under his publishing house. Currently he still disallows the acceptance of government grants to any of his writers (Alspaugh 1146). Economically speaking, Ferlinghetti did benefit from the trial. The publicity created by the trial attracted new names to New Directions Publishing. The publicity also was great enough to propel Lawrence Ferlinghetti's image to the degree where he could successfully release his second collection of poetry, A Coney Island of the Mind. In most of Ferlinghetti's work, he has shown a concern with political issues. Ã¢â¬Å" His poetry often addresses political subjects...Ã¢â¬ (Nasso 196). The Kennedy Assassination, McCarthyism and the Vietnam conflict were all topics in several Ferlinghetti poems (Oppenheimer 136). Lawrence Ferlinghetti's past incidents involving the government influenced his poetry and consequentially he has little respect for government. Ã¢â¬Å"Ferlinghetti's... poetry offered blatant tirades against the destructive tendencies of America's political leadershipÃ¢â¬ (Trosky 136). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Politics are themes in virtually all of Ferlinghetti's works.
Posted by Russ Burnett at 2:41 AM
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This weekÃ¢â¬â¢s selections of articles from the AE reader were both interesting and thought provoking. The first article Ã¢â¬Å"Drinking to get Drunk,Ã¢â¬ details the growing concern of binge drinking on college campuses across the country. I thought it was very interesting that 23% of students are Ã¢â¬Å"frequent binge drinkersÃ¢â¬ whereby frequent binge drinking is operationally defined as those who consumed at least five drinks in a row at one point during any two week period. This is startling number when thinking of my own drinking habits or even the social norms of drinking on this campus. I would be confident in claiming that at Providence College, the percentage of frequent binge drinkers is likely higher than the national percentage. With the social culture of this campus being focused on gatherings that include alcohol, it is hard to remove oneself from a drinking climate. As a student leader on this campus, we are required to program so many a lcohol free activities to promote a Ã¢â¬Å"dryÃ¢â¬ campus. These efforts go unnoticed and very often are unattended by students because of the competition of the off campus bar scene. Perhaps if the surrounding community (ie: local bar establishments/package stores, law enforcement officials, attorney generals office) becomes more stringent in enforcing underage drinking regulations, it will become more difficult for underage students on this campus to drink. Or on the flipside, the result could be just as devastating with a shift in drinking off campus to on campus, causing more on campus disciplinary actions. This could be worth it however if it means that students will be drinking in their dorms and in a fairly safe environment unlike our neighboring community. Further examination on this campus is necessary and continues through student congress and Fr. McPhailÃ¢â¬â¢s office. Personally, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think the drinking climate will change until the allure of drinking and being drunk is discouraged and students develop a mature sense of what is Ã¢â¬Å"cool.Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The second article Ã¢â¬Å"The Drug that Pretends it IsnÃ¢â¬â¢tÃ¢â¬ is also an article related to alcohol and the nasty consequences of drinking on our society. The article opens with the giggle of Jamaica, the trendy spring break hot spot that many college students flock to. A policy research group called Drug Strategies produced a report that calls alcohol Ã¢â¬Å"AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s most pervasive drug problem,Ã¢â¬ which is sadly true. What shocked me was the claim that alcohol-related deaths outnumber deaths related to drugs four to one; alcohol is a factor in more than half of all domestic-violence and sexual assault cases.
Posted by Russ Burnett at 4:02 AM
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
In Social Contract, Jean-Jacques Rousseau draws some interesting conclusions and makes some very interesting points about the dynamic that human beings have to go through when dealing with each other. His main points in the book have to do with the fact that men are not meant to be held down, nor or they meant to be restrained in any way. Instead, men were meant to run free and be able to make their own decisions as much as they possibly can.I think that this book takes the completely complicated question of human nature and breaks it down in a way that is a little bit easier to understand. The first and most prevalent point in the book is about how people are not meant to be held down or restrained. According to the thoughts of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, freedom and liberty are things that help both people and societies thrive and survive. More than anything else, people desire this type of freedom because it makes them feel like they can do what they were meant to do.In my opinion, thi s is a driving force for societies. Because of human nature and how we are wired, people are not meant at all to be held down and they are not meant to have to conform to what society tells them to conform to. When a society feels like they are being held down or enslaved by another group of people, it is just a natural thing to want to break free of that oppression and spread their wings. This book also takes an interesting look at the role of government and how it impacts the way people treat each other.Like many of the prevalent thinkers of his time, Rousseau holds onto the opinion that big government is a limiting factor instead of being something that has a positive impact on the people it purports to help. With that in mind, government should be limited as much as possible, especially when there is a chance that some sort of corruption exists underneath the surface. I think this is a cynical way to look at life, but given the circumstances that were around for Rousseau and man y of his fellow thinkers, it is easy to see where one might be compelled to think this way.I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think that it is necessarily healthy to hold onto this opinion in terms of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s government, but there are some very interesting lessons that can be gleaned. This book takes the opportunity to touch on a number of political topics and how they affect people and it does not miss. The author obviously has a healthy fear of big government, which was extremely important during his time. I think that the consideration of force among peoples is an extremely important consideration, as well.Individuals can either conform to force as it confronts them or they can take the forces in their way and direct them. I think that it is difficult for most people to grasp having unnecessary force being put on them. As the author wrote in the first part of the book, men were not made to be enslaved, so that is not a natural thing for them to have to put up with. This understanding is essen tial to getting to know human beings and further, understanding society at large.
Posted by Russ Burnett at 6:18 AM
Monday, September 16, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"And all the books youÃ¢â¬â¢ve read have been read by other people. And all the songs youÃ¢â¬â¢ve loved have been heard by other people. And that girl thatÃ¢â¬â¢s pretty to you is pretty to other people. And you know that if you looked at these facts when you were happy, you would feel great because you are describing Ã¢â¬Å"unity. Ã¢â¬ (p. 96). Ã¢â¬Å"The Perks of Being a WallflowerÃ¢â¬ written by Stephen Chbosky was published by MTV books and Pocket Books on February 1st, 1999. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s classified as Young Adult, Contemporary Fiction and Epistolary novel. Epistolary novel is a novel written as a series of documents.Anne Frank is a type of Epistolary novel. Unlike Anne Frank, this one is written in form of letters, not a diary. In this novel you can see how Ã¢â¬Å"CharlieÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ life changes throughout his freshman year. How he deals with all the problems he faced, he faces, and heÃ¢â¬â¢ll face. In a unknown setting, the novel begins August 1991 with a teenage boy going by the alias Ã¢â¬Å"CharlieÃ¢â¬ , writing to an anonymous friend. Ã¢â¬Å"I just need to know that someone out there listens and understands and doesn't try to sleep with people even if they could have.I need to know that these people exist. Ã¢â¬ (p. 2). He heard someone at school talking about this anonymous friend, and he thought it would be someone nice to talk to. He specifically asks this friend to not try to find his true identity. Charlie has begun his freshman year while his brother is at Pennsylvania State University and his sister is at her senior year. We learn that his best friend, and only friend, committed suicide before he started writing these letters, leaving Charlie alone in high school.His favorite person in the world, his aunt, also died when he was 7 years old. He states repeatedly that something bad happened to her, but he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mention what, because it brings him to a bad place. After she died he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t remember his lif e for a year, and he had been Ã¢â¬Å"differentÃ¢â¬ ever since. As he starts freshman year, he is an outcast, until he meets Sam and Patrick. They introduce him to an electric, open-minded, hard-partying life, and soon Charlie starts enjoying his life. Ã¢â¬Å"And at that moment, I swear we were infinite. Ã¢â¬ (p. 39).Experiences that Charlie and his family and friends go through and the topics explored throughout the novel include suicide, difficult/abusive relationships, drug use/smoking, sex, abortion, child abuse/trauma, the struggles of homosexuality, and the awkward times of adolescence, such as first kisses and first girlfriends. Charlie is a troubled teenage boy. He is insecure and shy, because he just lost his best friend, and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know to deal with school alone. Since the death of his aunt, which he takes the blame, [Ã¢â¬Å"Despite everything my mom and doctor and dad have said to me about blame, I can't stop thinking what I know.And I know that my aunt Helen would still be alive today if she just bought me one present like everyone else. Ã¢â¬ (p. 92)], he has been different, sort of out of sync. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s very sentimental, and he analyzes everything too much. Every tiny detail, is a big deal for him. He loves music and literature. His teacher gives him books to read and write bout, such as To Kill a Mocking Bird. His aunt molested him at the age of 7, but he never told anyone, because he loved so very much.
Posted by Russ Burnett at 8:37 AM
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Switch Model We consider an N _ N non-blocking, input bu_ered switch. Figure 4.1: Queueing theoretical account for a waiting line. The input I, has M FIFO waiting lines, qi1 to qiM, where 1 _ I _ N and M _ N. The length of every FIFO is assumed to be in_nite. N end product ports are divided into M reference groups each of N=M end products ports. When a package arrives it joins one of the M group, depending on the its finish. In the system that we consider, a package from an input I destined for end product port J is put into qij modM. The input tra_c is assumed homogenous and with Bernoulli distribution. Packages 91 4.2 Random Selection are distributed uniformly for all end product ports. Time is assumed to be slotted with each slot equal to the transmittal clip of a cell. In a cell slot, we have to choose a upper limit of N cells from MN FIFO waiting lines with non-conicting finish references. The manner in which these N cells are selected is decided by the cell choice policy. Di_erent cell choice policies are discussed in the following subdivision. Here we assume that at most one cell is selected from each input port, destined to a non-conicting end product. An e_cient cell choice policy should maximise the throughput and mini- mize package transmittal hold. It should besides be noted that the programming policy should be simple for execution. We present here di_erent cell choice poli- cies. A Queue length matrix L, of size N _N, is formed from current waiting line length of FIFO. The current waiting line length of each FIFO is assigned to Lij, where I is input port and J is the finish port of HOL cell. A 3 ten 3 switch is considered as an illustration with 3 waiting lines per port Figure 4.2: Queue length matrix and Indicator Queue length matrix whose queue length matrix is given in Figure 4.2 ( a ) . An index waiting line length matrix, K is formed from queue length matrix L by the relation Kij = 1 if Lij & A ; gt ; 0, else Kij = 0. ( Figure 4.2 ( B ) . ) 4.2 Random Selection In this policy, in a cell slot, one of the random places of the cell is selected. If the cell is available it will be switched to the end product port. The selected input port and selected end product port will non contend in farther loops. This procedure is repeated N times or till no cell is available for switching.There is possibility that indiscriminately waiting line can be selected for which there is no HOL cell, under such circum- stances throughput will acquire reduced. Even through switch is con_gured for size of N X N with M queues/port, still we need scheduling policy to run on N _ N matrix. No warrant that throughput is 100 % under heavy tra_c i.e. _ = 1.is 92 4.3 Longest Queue Priority choice ( LQPS ) achieved.Implementation of random choice is di_cult in hardware.No unique solution for same queue length matrix. Following graph shows the throughput public presentation of MIQ with di_erent switch sizes and fluctuation in figure of waiting lines per ports. The throughput is dependent merely on value of M when N is greater than 32.Below N=32 throughput dependant on N and M besides. Figure 4.3: Impregnation Throughput with Random Policy for assorted values of M 4.3 Longest Queue Priority choice ( LQPS ) In this strategy, precedence is given to the longest waiting line FIFO [ 15 ] . In the waiting line length matrix L, Lij = 0 indicates that no HOL cell is available from input port I destined to end product port J. In a cell slot, the algorithm starts with _rst loop where we select a cell from input port I to end product port Js such that Lij is maximal. The cells from input port I and cells destined to end product port J are non considered for choice in all farther loops. From the staying matrix, once more a new maximal component Lij is found. The algorithm terminates after N loops or when no cell is available for choice. In Figure4.4, the circled HOL places are selected cell places. With mention to Fig. 4.4 ( a ) merely three cells are selected even though there is possibility of choosing more than three cells for exchanging. 93 4.4 Weight Maximum Figure 4.4: Longest Queue precedence choice With avaricious attack of maximal queue length choice the packages are selected for exchanging. As shown in Fig.4.4 ( a ) the VOQ & A ; apos ; s selected for exchanging are VOQ ( 1,2 ) , VOQ ( 3,1 ) , VOQ ( 4,3 ) , VOQ ( 2,4 ) , where the instantaneous throughput is non 100 % . There are multiple solutions available as shown in Fig. 4.4 ( B ) . Still it is non an optimum solution even though the instantaneous throughput is 100 % . Now see the optimum solution with constrains mentioned earlier which is shown in Fig.4.4 ( degree Celsius ) . The programming policy should be such that it should maximise figure of pack- ets selected i.e. N and at the same clip overall queue length of selected package should besides be maximal to avoid the cell loss.This is discussed in following subdivision on longest waiting line precedence choice with pattern fiting ( LQPSP ) . No warrant that 100 % throughput can be achieved. Multiple solutions are possible. _nding optimum solution is di_cult. there will be fluctuation in throughput if we consider amount of queue length of selected waiting lines is maximal. Algorithm becomes more composite. 4.4 Weight Maximum In the maximal leaden policy, each HOL cell is associated with a weight, Wij. Weight Wij is calculated utilizing Indicator Queue length matrix K as follows. Wij = _XN m=1 [ Kim + Kmj ] _ : Ten _ Kij _ ( 4.1 ) 94 4.4 Weight Maximum Figure 4.5: Impregnation Throughput with Maximum Queue Length for assorted values of M Figure 4.6: Maximum Weighted choice policy ( WMAX ) This weight factor additions with addition in HOL tenancy at input FIFO and hot-spot tra_c to label end product port. In a cell slot, the algorithm starts with _rst loop where we select a cell from input port I to end product port Js such that its weight is maximal in weight matrix W. If the same maximal component is found at multiple places, one of those is selected indiscriminately or round redbreast 95 4.5 RCSUM Minimum policy is used among such input ports. Cells from the earlier selected input port and cells destined for before selected end product port are non selected. This procedure is repeated till N cells are selected or no cell is left for choice. In Fig.4.6 ( a ) , circled HOL place cells are the selected cell places, and the little square indicates loop figure in which matching cell gets selected. In this instance merely two cells are selected for exchanging, these are indicated by circles drawn in Queue length matrix L in Fig.4.6 ( B ) . Merely two cells are selected even though there is possibility of choosing more than two cells. This decrease in figure of cells selected occurs because more figure of cells are deleted from competition at each loop. 4.5 RCSUM Minimum In this strategy weight matrix generated is the same as in instance of WMAX policy. The lone di_erence is that here a non-zero minimal value is searched. If it _nds one such Wij, so cell from matching place is selected for exchanging from input port I to end product port J. If multiple non-zero lower limit values are available so one is selected indiscriminately. Figure 4.7: Minimum Leaden choice policy ( WMIN ) Fig.4.7 ( a ) shows the sequence in which the cells are selected. In Fig. Fig.4.7 ( a ) , circled HOL place cells are the selected cell places, and the little square 96 4.6 Cell choice policies with form fiting indicates loop figure in which matching cell gets selected. Fig.4.7 ( B ) shows the cells selected in Queue length matrix. Fig.4.7 ( degree Celsius ) and Fig.4.7 ( vitamin D ) show another possible sequence of choice of cells. It clearly shows that more figure of cells are acquiring selected here than in WMAX policy. In this strategy, choosing non- zero lower limit from weight matrix will heighten the throughput because in each choice procedure we delete less figure of cells from the competition in the following loop. This is precisely opposite of the WMAX choice standards. This work is published in Canadian Conference on Broadband Research [ 25 ] . But public presentation graph were non presented. 4.6 Cell choice policies with form fiting It is seen that there are 2N2 substitution of forms for choosing cells in the above matrix. However, because of the limitations on cell choice ( in a cell slot merely one cell can be selected from an input and at most one cell can be switched to an end product port ) the figure of forms of the matrix suited for choice for shift is N! if M = N and much less than Nitrogen! for M & A ; lt ; N. We constrain the form I of the N _ N matrix such that, XN j=1 Iij = XN i=1 Iij = 1 ( 4.2 ) These forms are substitutions of Identity matrix. Any random form with above limitation can be generated without hive awaying them into the memory. 4.6.1 Generation of forms If we have switch size of N _N so we need ( NoÃâ Ãâ Ãâ 1 ) ! 2 distinguishable cell places that can be used for exchanging. These generate other allowable permuted forms. Procedure to obtain N! forms is as follows. ( 1 ) Get pattern I and take its image. This will give two forms. ( 2 ) Shift form I right cyclically. Repeating measure ( 1 ) and ( 2 ) N times will bring forth N! forms. If we take N = 4, so we demand three distinguishable forms. To obtain these three form from Indicator matrix, we have to trade column 2 with column 1 and column 1 with column 4. Repeat procedure mentioned above to obtain all 24 ( i.e. 4! ) forms. Fig. 6 shows the procedure of coevals of forms. These forms are favorable forms. These forms are suited for execution by hardware, as they can be generated utilizing parallel hardware. 4.6.2 Longest Queue Priority choice with pattern match- ing We obtain a soap value matrix X by utilizing the relation X = [ Phosphorus ij ( Iij: _ Lij ) ] . Here: _ notation indicates element by element generation. In the illustrated 97 4.6 Cell choice policies with form fiting Figure 4.8: Form Generation illustration of 3 _ 3 matrix, a upper limit of six forms will be available. Therefore, soap value matrix X has six elements. This matrix _nds the lucifer that achieves maximal aggregative weight under the limitations of alone coupling, i.e. select form I such that X = [ Phosphorus ij ( Iij: _ Lij ) ] is maximal and equation ( 1 ) is satis_ed. The column matrix X indicate the value obtained from di_erent forms as shown in ( Fig.4.9 ( a ) ) . Select maximal value from X under the restraint of unique coupling and in bend get the form to be selected for exchanging cells from HOL. In this instance I6 form is selected, ( Fig.4.8 ( a ) ) . In the selected form, 1 indicates that cell has to be selected from input I to end product port J. Once the form is selected so matching cells are deleted from the waiting line. It clearly shows that 3 cells are selected for exchanging. If multiple entries in X have the same maximal value, so take any one form indiscriminately. Round robin precedence may be maintained in choice of forms. This strategy is di_cult to implement in hardware, as it requires ( N2=2 ) _ R spot adder where R is the figure of spots required to stand for length of Queue. It gives better public presentation than LQPS. 98 4.6 Cell choice policies with form fiting Figure 4.9: Longest Queue Priority Selection with form fiting 4.6.3 Random Selection with Pattern Matching In this strategy, the form I with limitations in equation ( 1 ) , is indiscriminately chosen among the N! forms. The logical ANDing of I is done with indica- tor Queue length matrix K. In this strategy, the throughput reduces under non unvarying tra_c and it will be unpredictable. 4.6.4 Maximal Weight with Pattern Matching In this method Indicator Queue length matrix K is considered. The sum weight matrix Z is formed such that Z = [ Phosphorus ij ( Iij: _ Kij ) ] ( Fig.4.10 ( a ) ) . The ma- trix Z indicates weight obtained utilizing Indicator Queue length matrix and form I1 to I6. A maximal value is selected from Z ( hashed elements indicates maxi- silent value ) . If multiple places have the same maximal value one among them is selected indiscriminately. In this instance form I6 and I1 get selected. Fig.4.10 ( B ) shows the place of cells selected from the Queue length matrix. Once the form is selected so matching cells are deleted from the waiting line. The execution of this strategy is easy compared to LQPS with pattern matching. Figure 4.10: Maximum Weighted choice policy with pattern match- ing ( WMAXP )
Posted by Russ Burnett at 10:56 AM